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Ground Source Heat Pumps Explained (FAQs)

A ground source heat pump system taps into the earth's natural warmth from below the surface.

While they do consume electricity, the principle behind them is that they utilise less electrical power compared to the amount of heat they generate.

These pumps fulfil a similar function to a boiler within a central heating setup, but instead of burning fuel, they harness the ambient heat from the soil.

Continue reading to delve deeper into how ground source heat pumps operate and determine if installing one aligns with your home's needs and financial plan.

Ground Source Heat Pumps Explained

Understanding the Mechanics of Ground Source Heat Pumps

In a nutshell:

A ground source heat pump system consists of a ground loop—a series of water pipes buried beneath the earth's surface—and a heat pump positioned at ground level.

This system circulates a mix of water and anti-freeze through the ground loop, which then absorbs heat from the earth.

The heated water mixture is compressed and passes through a heat exchanger, transferring its heat to the heat pump. This warmth is then distributed throughout your home's heating system.

Explore the operation of ground source heat pumps through the following infographic.

Ground Source Heat Pump Processes:

- The system uses a fluid to capture heat from the soil.

- Electricity is applied to compress the fluid, elevating its temperature.

- Heat is delivered to radiators or underfloor heating systems, with any excess stored in a hot water cylinder.

- The stored hot water is available for use in showers, baths, and taps.

A full explanation:

A ground source heat pump (GSHP) system is an innovative and sustainable solution for heating and cooling your home, utilising the stable thermal energy stored beneath the earth's surface. At its core, this system comprises two main components: a ground loop and a heat pump. The ground loop is an extensive network of water pipes laid deep underground, while the heat pump is strategically positioned at ground level to facilitate easy maintenance and efficiency.

The operational essence of a GSHP system lies in its ability to circulate a specially formulated mixture of water and antifreeze through the subterranean ground loop. As this mixture travels through the loop, it absorbs the natural, renewable heat stored in the ground, a process made possible due to the relatively constant temperature found beneath the earth's surface, regardless of seasonal changes above.

Upon absorbing this geothermal energy, the heated fluid mixture is then compressed within the system, a step that significantly increases its temperature through a process of mechanical compression. This is where the heat pump’s role becomes critical. The compressed, heated fluid passes through a heat exchanger within the heat pump, transferring its accumulated thermal energy to the pump.

Once the heat is transferred to the heat pump, it is then efficiently distributed throughout your home's heating system. This can include traditional radiators, modern underfloor heating systems, or a combination of both, providing a versatile and comprehensive heating solution. Moreover, the system is designed to store any excess heat produced during this process in a hot water cylinder, ensuring that hot water is

readily available for domestic use, including showers, baths, and taps.

An image of a ground source heat pump set up
Ground Source Heat Pumps Explained

The infographic above provides a visual exploration of the ground source heat pump's processes, illustrating the seamless transition of heat from the ground to your home:

1. Fluid Absorption: The system begins with the fluid absorbing natural heat from the soil, a renewable energy source that remains untapped in many properties.

2. Compression and Temperature Elevation: Electricity powers the compression of this fluid, elevating its temperature to a level suitable for domestic heating purposes.

3. Heat Distribution: The now heated fluid is circulated to radiators or underfloor heating systems, effectively distributing warmth throughout your home.

4. Hot Water Storage: Any surplus heat is not wasted but stored in a hot water cylinder, ensuring that your home has a constant supply of hot water for various needs.

Through this infographic and explanation, the operation of ground source heat pumps is demystified, showcasing how this eco-friendly technology harnesses the earth's stable underground temperature to provide efficient heating and cooling solutions for homes.

Space Requirements:

An ample space is necessary for installation, typically a garden accessible to excavation equipment.

The required size of the ground loop depends on your home's dimensions and your heating needs.

For the installation of a ground source heat pump system, a considerable amount of space is crucial, most commonly a garden that can accommodate digging machinery. This space not only needs to be large enough to allow for the physical installation process but also must be accessible for the equipment required to perform the excavation. The specific size of the ground loop, which is a critical component of the system, is determined by several factors including the size of your home and your specific heating requirements.

The larger the property and the greater the demand for heat, the more extensive the ground loop needs to be to efficiently absorb enough thermal energy from the ground. This requirement means that homeowners must carefully consider the feasibility of installing such a system based on their available outdoor space and the unique thermal needs of their home, ensuring that the ground loop can be sufficiently large to provide the desired level of heating.

Heating Efficiency:

Ground source heat pumps can increase the temperature from the ground to about 50°C. The more you heat your water, the more electricity you'll consume.

This heat can be used in radiators, for hot water, or in underfloor heating systems. The need for an additional heating system depends on your property's insulation. A well-insulated home may be sufficiently heated with central heating set to 50°C, but a poorly insulated home may require additional heating.

An alternative option is an air-source heat pump, which is usually installed outside a property and extracts heat from the air.

For additional information, refer to our guide on air source heat pumps.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Ground Source Heat Pumps

Ground source heat pumps emit less CO2 compared to traditional heating systems. However, they still require electricity to operate, meaning they cannot be considered entirely zero-carbon unless powered by renewable energy sources.

The Energy Saving Trust's findings from October 2022 indicate that an 'average' ground source heat pump could lead to savings up to £2,500, or potentially increase your annual heating costs by £205, depending on the system it replaces. Additionally, ground source heat pumps can reduce CO2 emissions by 2,300kg to 11,000kg annually, depending on the replaced heating system.


- Financial Assistance: Available funding can help offset the cost of a ground source heat pump.

- Efficiency: Although electricity is needed to operate the pump, for every unit of electricity consumed, between two and four units of heat are produced, making it an efficient heating method.

- Reduced Costs: Utilising lower-cost Economy 7 electricity tariffs can decrease the expense of operating the heat pump.


- Installation Costs: Installation is costly, with expenses ranging from £24,000 for a buried loop system to £49,000 for a borehole, excluding potential underfloor heating installation costs, according to the Energy Saving Trust.

- Construction Disruption: The necessary groundwork can be expensive and disruptive, and planning permission might be required for borehole installations if space is limited.

- Suitability: Typically unsuitable for properties with existing gas-fired central heating due to the technology's lower operating temperatures, making it more compatible with homes equipped with underfloor heating or oversized radiators.

Additional Considerations:

A separate electric heater may be necessary to fulfil all your heating and hot water demands. Using the heat pump for hot water can diminish the overall efficiency of the system. Ground source heat pumps are often more compatible with new-build homes, as they can be integrated during the construction phase.

Efficiency of Ground Source Heat Pumps

A ground source heat pump system can reduce your carbon footprint by utilising a renewable, natural heat source—the earth. The Energy Saving Trust notes that a mid-efficiency heat pump can offer significant carbon savings when replacing outdated electric or coal heating systems.

While the pump requires an additional power source, typically electricity, this does mean there will be some CO2 emissions.

Whether you opt for a heat pump or not, visit our energy comparison service for ratings and expert advice on selecting the right energy tariff for you.

Comparing Ground and Air Source Heat Pumps

When comparing ground source and air source heat pumps, several key factors emerge. Ground source heat pumps, while more expensive to install, generally offer higher efficiency than air source heat pumps due to the consistent temperature of the ground throughout the year. This stability allows ground source heat pumps to operate with less efficiency variance, maintaining performance even in colder seasons.

Conversely, air source heat pumps, which extract heat from the air, may experience fluctuations in efficiency depending on the external temperature, performing better on mild days and potentially costing more to run during colder periods. Moreover, the initial higher cost of ground source heat pumps can be offset by their long-term energy savings and reduced environmental impact, making them a worthy consideration for those prioritising efficiency and sustainability in their heating solutions.

an image of a Ground Source Heat Pump being installed
GSHP Group Loop

FAQs: Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP)

1. What is a ground source heat pump (GSHP)?

A ground source heat pump is a heating and cooling system that transfers heat to or from the ground. It uses the earth as a heat source (in the winter) or a heat sink (in the summer) to provide a highly efficient form of central heating and/or cooling.

2. How does a GSHP work?

A GSHP system circulates a mixture of water and antifreeze through a loop of pipes buried underground. The fluid in these pipes absorbs natural heat from the ground in winter to heat your home and reverses the process in summer to cool it, by extracting indoor heat and transferring it to the ground.

3. What are the benefits of installing a GSHP?

Benefits include lower running costs, reduced carbon emissions, and a reliable system that operates efficiently throughout the year. GSHPs can offer significant savings over traditional heating systems and are environmentally friendly.

4. Are there any financial incentives for installing a GSHP?

Yes, many regions offer financial incentives such as grants, rebates, or tax credits to encourage the adoption of renewable energy technologies, including ground source heat pumps. These incentives can help offset the initial investment.

5. How much space do I need for a GSHP?

The amount of space needed depends on the size of your property and heating requirements. Typically, a large garden or open space accessible for drilling equipment is required for the ground loop installation.

6. Can GSHPs be used for cooling as well as heating?

Yes, GSHPs can provide both heating in the winter and cooling in the summer, making them an all-year-round solution for home climate control.

7. What is the lifespan of a GSHP system?

The lifespan of a GSHP system is typically around 25 years for the indoor components and over 50 years for the ground loop, making it a long-term investment for your property.

8. How much does a GSHP system cost?

The cost of a GSHP system varies depending on the size of your home, the system's complexity, and the amount of ground work required. Installation costs can be higher than traditional systems, but operational savings and incentives often offset these initial expenses.

9. Is my property suitable for a GSHP?

Suitability depends on several factors including available space for the ground loop, the thermal demands of your property, and soil conditions. A professional assessment is recommended to determine if a GSHP is right for you.

10. How efficient are GSHPs compared to traditional heating systems?

GSHPs are highly efficient, often achieving efficiencies of 300-400%. This means for every unit of electricity used to power the pump, three to four units of heat are produced, making GSHPs significantly more efficient than conventional heating systems.

For more information or to assess if a ground source heat pump is right for your home, consider consulting Renewable Energy Management (REM).


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